WebOur physician-scientists—in the lab, in the clinic, and at the bedside—work to understand the effects of debilitating diseases and our patients’ needs to help guide our studies and improve patient care WebPresidential politics and political news from blogger.com News about political parties, political campaigns, world and international politics, politics news headlines plus in-depth features and WebGeneralities. Let (,) and (,) be ordered pairs. Then the characteristic (or defining) property of the ordered pair is: (,) = (,) .The set of all ordered pairs whose first entry is in some set A and whose second entry is in some set B is called the Cartesian product of A and B, and written A × B.A binary relation between sets A and B is a subset of A × B.. The (a, b) WebThen option (1) results in enemy deaths. So maybe our choice is between tasing a million, thereby non-intentionally killing soldiers, and intentionally killing one general. It seems to me that (2) is morally preferable, even though our moderate pacifist has to allow (1) and forbid (2) WebPubMed® comprises more than 34 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites ... read more
The design and implementation is based on the snow video codec, which uses OBMC. Stanislav's work proved that significant compression gains can be achieved with inter frame compression. FFmpeg welcomes Stanislav to continue working beyond this proof of concept and bring its advances into the official FFV1 specification within the IETF. Petru Rares Sincraian added several self-tests to FFmpeg and successfully went through the in-some-cases tedious process of fine tuning tests parameters to avoid known and hard to avoid problems, like checksum mismatches due to rounding errors on the myriad of platforms we support.
His work has improved the code coverage of our self tests considerably. Umair Khan updated and integrated the ALS encoder to fit in the current FFmpeg codebase. He also implemented a missing feature for the ALS decoder that enables floating-point sample decoding. FFmpeg support for MPEG-4 ALS has been improved significantly by Umair's work.
We welcome him to keep maintaining his improvements and hope for great contributions to come. Ján Sebechlebský's generic goal was to improve the tee muxer so it tolerated blocking IO and allowed transparent error recovery.
During the design phase it turned out that this functionality called for a separate muxer, so Ján spent his summer working on the so-called FIFO muxer, gradually fixing issues all over the codebase. He succeeded in his task, and the FIFO muxer is now part of the main repository, alongside several other improvements he made in the process. Jai Luthra's objective was to update the out-of-tree and pretty much abandoned MLP Meridian Lossless Packing encoder for libavcodec and improve it to enable encoding to the TrueHD format.
For the qualification period the encoder was updated such that it was usable and throughout the summer, successfully improved adding support for multi-channel audio and TrueHD encoding. Jai's code has been merged into the main repository now. While a few problems remain with respect to LFE channel and 32 bit sample handling, these are in the process of being fixed such that effort can be finally put in improving the encoder's speed and efficiency. Davinder Singh investigated existing motion estimation and interpolation approaches from the available literature and previous work by our own: Michael Niedermayer, and implemented filters based on this research.
These filters allow motion interpolating frame rate conversion to be applied to a video, for example, to create a slow motion effect or change the frame rate while smoothly interpolating the video along the motion vectors. There's still work to be done to call these filters 'finished', which is rather hard all things considered, but we are looking optimistically at their future. And that's it. We are happy with the results of the program and immensely thankful for the opportunity of working with such an amazing set of students.
We can be a tough crowd but our mentors did an amazing job at hand holding our interns through their journey. Thanks also to Google for this wonderful program and to everyone that made room in their busy lives to help making GSoC a success. See you in ! Support for the SDL1 library has been dropped, due to it no longer being maintained as of January, and it being superseded by the SDL2 library. As a result, the SDL1 output device has also been removed and replaced by an SDL2 implementation.
Both the ffplay and opengl output devices have been updated to support SDL2. It fixes several bugs. We recommend users, distributors, and system integrators, to upgrade unless they use current git master. After thorough deliberation, we're announcing that we're about to drop the ffserver program from the project starting with the next release.
ffserver has been a problematic program to maintain due to its use of internal APIs, which complicated the recent cleanups to the libavformat library, and block further cleanups and improvements which are desired by API users and will be easier to maintain.
Furthermore the program has been hard for users to deploy and run due to reliability issues, lack of knowledgable people to help and confusing configuration file syntax. Current users and members of the community are invited to write a replacement program to fill the same niche that ffserver did using the new APIs and to contact us so we may point users to test and contribute to its development.
It mainly deals with a few ABI issues introduced in the previous release. We strongly recommend users, distributors, and system integrators, especially those who experienced issues upgrading from 3. FFmpeg has been accepted as a Google Summer of Code open source organization. If you wish to participate as a student see our project ideas page. You can already get in contact with mentors and start working on qualification tasks as well as register at google and submit your project proposal draft.
Good luck! We have just removed support for VisualOn AAC encoder libvo-aacenc and libaacplus in FFmpeg master. Even before marking our internal AAC encoder as stable , it was known that libvo-aacenc was of an inferior quality compared to our native one for most samples. However, the VisualOn encoder was used extensively by the Android Open Source Project, and we would like to have a tested-and-true stable option in our code base. When first committed in , libaacplus filled in the gap of encoding High Efficiency AAC formats HE-AAC and HE-AACv2 , which was not supported by any of the encoders in FFmpeg at that time.
The circumstances for both have changed. After the work spearheaded by Rostislav Pehlivanov and Claudio Freire, the now-stable FFmpeg native AAC encoder is ready to compete with much more mature encoders. The Fraunhofer FDK AAC Codec Library for Android was added in as the fourth supported external AAC encoder, and the one with the best quality and the most features supported, including HE-AAC and HE-AACv2. Therefore, we have decided that it is time to remove libvo-aacenc and libaacplus.
If you are currently using libvo-aacenc, prepare to transition to the native encoder aac when updating to the next version of FFmpeg. In most cases it is as simple as merely swapping the encoder name.
In both cases, you will enjoy an audible quality improvement and as well as fewer licensing headaches. We have made several new point releases 2. They fix various bugs, as well as CVE and CVE Please see the changelog for each release for more details.
We recommend users, distributors and system integrators to upgrade unless they use current git master. After seven years the native FFmpeg AAC encoder has had its experimental flag removed and declared as ready for general use. The encoder is transparent at kbps for most samples tested with artifacts only appearing in extreme cases. Subjective quality tests put the encoder to be of equal or greater quality than most of the other encoders available to the public. Licensing has always been an issue with encoding AAC audio as most of the encoders have had a license making FFmpeg unredistributable if compiled with support for them.
The fact that there now exists a fully open and truly free AAC encoder integrated directly within the project means a lot to those who wish to use accepted and widespread standards. The majority of the work done to bring the encoder up to quality was started during this year's GSoC by developer Claudio Freire and Rostislav Pehlivanov.
Both continued to work on the encoder with the latter joining as a developer and mainainer, working on other parts of the project as well. Also, thanks to Kamedo2 who does comparisons and tests, the original authors and all past and current contributors to the encoder.
Users are suggested and encouraged to use the encoder and provide feedback or breakage reports through our bug tracker. A big thank you note goes to our newest supporters: MediaHub and Telepoint. Both companies have donated a dedicated server with free of charge internet connectivity. Here is a little bit about them in their own words:. Telepoint is the biggest carrier-neutral data center in Bulgaria.
Located in the heart of Sofia on a cross-road of many Bulgarian and International networks, the facility is a fully featured Tier 3 data center that provides flexible customer-oriented colocation solutions ranging from a server to a private collocation hall and a high level of security.
MediaHub Ltd. is a Bulgarian IPTV platform and services provider which uses FFmpeg heavily since it started operating a year ago. FFmpeg participated to the latest edition of the Google Summer of Code Project. FFmpeg got a total of 8 assigned projects, and 7 of them were successful. We want to thank Google , the participating students, and especially the mentors who joined this effort.
We're looking forward to participating in the next GSoC edition! Stephan Holljes's project for this session of Google Summer of Code was to implement basic HTTP server features for libavformat, to complement the already present HTTP client and RTMP and RTSP server code. The first part of the project was to make the HTTP code capable of accepting a single client; it was completed partly during the qualification period and partly during the first week of the summer.
Thanks to this work, it is now possible to make a simple HTTP stream using the following commands:. The next part of the project was to extend the code to be able to accept several clients, simultaneously or consecutively. Since libavformat did not have an API for that kind of task, it was necessary to design one. This part was mostly completed before the midterm and applied shortly afterwards.
Since the ffmpeg command-line tool is not ready to serve several clients, the test ground for that new API is an example program serving hard-coded content. The last and most ambitious part of the project was to update ffserver to make use of the new API.
It would prove that the API is usable to implement real HTTP servers, and expose the points where more control was needed. By the end of the summer, a first working patch series was undergoing code review. Mariusz finished an API prepared by the FFmpeg community and implemented Samba directory listing as qualification task.
During the program he extended the API with the possibility to remove and rename files on remote servers. He completed the implementation of these features for file, Samba, SFTP, and FTP protocols.
At the end of the program, Mariusz provided a sketch of an implementation for HTTP directory listening. Mate was working on directshow input from digital video sources. He got working input from ATSC input sources, with specifiable tuner. The code has not been committed, but a patch of it was sent to the ffmpeg-devel mailing list for future use.
The mentor plans on cleaning it up and committing it, at least for the ATSC side of things. Mate and the mentor are still working trying to finally figure out how to get DVB working.
Niklesh's project was to expand our support for 3GPP Timed Text subtitles. This is the native subtitle format for mp4 containers, and is interesting because it's usually the only subtitle format supported by the stock playback applications on iOS and Android devices.
ffmpeg already had basic support for these subtitles which ignored all formatting information - it just provided basic plain-text support. The main challenge here is that Timed Text handles formatting in a very different way from most common subtitle formats. It uses a binary encoding based on mp4 boxes, naturally and stores information separately from the text itself.
This requires additional work to track which parts of the text formatting applies to, and explicitly dealing with overlapping formatting which other formats support but Timed Text does not so it requires breaking the overlapping sections into separate non-overlapping ones with different formatting. Finally, Niklesh had to be careful about not trusting any size information in the subtitles - and that's no joke: the now infamous Android stagefright bug was in code for parsing Timed Text subtitles.
Pedro Arthur has modularized the vertical and horizontal scalers. To do this he designed and implemented a generic filter framework and moved the existing scaler code into it.
These changes now allow easily adding removing, splitting or merging processing steps. The implementation was benchmarked and several alternatives were tried to avoid speed loss. He also added gamma corrected scaling support. An example to use gamma corrected scaling would be:. Pedro has done impressive work considering the short time available, and he is a FFmpeg committer now. He continues to contribute to FFmpeg, and has fixed some bugs in libswscale after GSoC has ended.
Of all those extensions, only TNS was left in a less-than-usable state, but the implementation has been pushed disabled anyway since it's a good basis for further improvements. PNS replaces noisy bands with a single scalefactor representing the energy of that band, gaining in coding efficiency considerably, and the quality improvements on low bitrates are impressive for such a simple feature.
TNS still needs some polishing, but has the potential to reduce coding artifacts by applying noise shaping in the temporal domain something that is a source of annoying, notable distortion on low-entropy bands. The technique is not as effective on classic X-Y recordings though. Finally, main prediction improves coding efficiency by exploiting correlation among successive frames.
While the gains have not been huge at this point, Rostislav has remained active even after the GSoC, and is polishing both TNS and main prediction, as well as looking for further improvements to make. In the process, the MIPS port of the encoder was broken a few times, something he's also working to fix. Donny Yang implemented basic keyframe only APNG encoder as the qualification task. Later he wrote interframe compression via various blend modes.
The current implementation tries all blend modes and picks one which takes the smallest amount of memory. Special care was taken to make sure that the decoder plays correctly all files found in the wild and that the encoder produces files that can be played in browsers that support APNG.
During his work he was tasked to fix any encountered bug in the decoder due to the fact that it doesn't match APNG specifications. Thanks to this work, a long standing bug in the PNG decoder has been fixed. For latter work he plans to continue working on the encoder, making it possible to select which blend modes will be used in the encoding process.
This could speed up encoding of APNG files. We published release 2. Maybe the literature on repeated games might help in some way. There are empirical indications that various skills and maybe even virtues are pretty domain specific. It seems that being good at reasoning about one thing need not make one good at reasoning about another, even if the reasoning is formally equivalent.
I do have a piece of anecdotal data, though. Nothing nearly like a marathon, but things like swimming km, or climbing for an hour, typically but not always competing against myself. And I have noticed some transfer of skills and maybe even of the virtue of patience both between the various sports and between the sports and other repetitive activities, such as grading.
For instance, I can compare how tired I feel half-way through a long set of climbs and how tired I feel half-way through a 2 km swim, and the comparison can give me some strength. Pacing is also much less important for grading. One might think that reasons for action are exhaustively and exclusively divided into the moral and the prudential. Here is a problem with this.
Suppose that you have a spinner divided into red and green areas. If you spin it and it lands into red, something nice happens to you; if it lands on green, something nice happens to a deserving stranger. You clearly have reason to spin the spinner. But, assuming the division of reasons, your reason for spinning it is neither moral nor prudential. So what should we say? One possibility is to say that there are only reasons of one type, say the moral. I find that attractive. Then benefits to yourself also give you moral reason to act, and so you simply have a moral reason to spin the spinner.
So you have two reasons, one moral and one prudential. Response: That may be right in the simple case. Now the reason-giving strength of a chancy outcome is proportionate to the probability. But in the saturated nonmeasurable case, there is no probability, and hence no meaningful strength for the red-based reason or for the green-based reason. But there is a meaningful strength for the red-or-green moral-cum-prudential reason. The red-or-green-based reason hence does not reduce to two separate reasons, one moral and one prudential.
Now, one might have technical worries about saturated nonmeasurable sets figuring in decisions. But now instead of supposing saturated nonmeasurable sets, suppose a case where an agent subjectively has literally no idea whether some event E will happen—has no probability assignment for E whatsoever, not even a ranged one except for the full range from 0 to 1.
And now suppose that the agent is told that if they so opt, then they will get something nice on E and a deserving stranger will get something nice otherwise. I think it is sometimes said that it is anachronistic to attribute to the ancient Greeks the discovery that the square root of two is irrational, because what they discovered was a properly geometrical fact, that the side and diagonal of a square are incommensurable, rather than a fact about real numbers.
It is correct to say that the Greeks discovered an incommensurability fact. But it is, I think, worth noting that this incommensurability fact is not really geometric fact: it is a geometric-cum-arithmetical fact. Here is why. The claim that two line segments are commensurable says that there are positive integers m and n such that m copies of the first segment have the same length as n copies of the second.
This claim is essentially arithmetical in that it quantifies over positive integers. And because pure Tarskian geometry is decidable, while the theory of the positive integers is not decidable, the positive integers are not definable in terms of pure geometry, so we cannot eliminate the quantification over positive integers. In fact, it is known that the rational numbers are not definable in terms of pure geometry either, so neither the incommensurability formulation nor theory irrationality formulation is a purely geometric claim.
I think the answer is positive, as long as one has a moderate pacifism that is opposed to lethal violence but not to all violence. I think that a prohibition of all violence is untenable.
It seems obvious that if you see someone about to shoot an innocent person, and you can give the shooter a shove to make them miss, you presumptively should.
Some of these might violate current international law, but it seems that a pacifist country could modify its commitment to some accords. After all, tasers sometimes kill, too. They do so less than 0. Third, we might subdivide moderate pacifists based on whether they prohibit all violence that foreseeably leads to death or just violence that intentionally leads to death. If it is only intentionally lethal violence that is forbidden, then quite a bit of modern warfare can stand.
If the enemy is attacking with tanks or planes, one can intentionally destroy the tank or plane as a weapon, while only foreseeing, without intending, the death of the crew.
Can one drop a bomb on an infantry unit intending to smash up their rifles without intending to kill the soldiers? Similarly, one can bomb enemy weapons factories. Whether such a limited way of waging war could be successful probably depends on the case.
Imagine a moderate pacifist who rejects lethal self-defense, but allows non-lethal self-defense when appropriate, say by use of tasers. Now, imagine that one person is attacking you and nine other innocents, with the intent of killing the ten of you, and you can stop them with a taser.
Surely you should, and surely the moderate pacifist will say that this is an appropriate use case for the taser. Very well. Now consider this on a national level. Suppose there are a million enemy soldiers ordered to commit genocide against ten million, and you have two ways to stop them:. But tasers occasionally kill people. Then option 1 results in enemy deaths. So maybe our choice is between tasing a million, thereby non-intentionally killing soldiers, and intentionally killing one general.
It seems to me that 2 is morally preferable, even though our moderate pacifist has to allow 1 and forbid 2. Note that a version of this argument goes through even if the moderate pacifist backs up and says that tasers are too lethal.
For suppose instead of tasers we have drones that destroy the dominant hand of an enemy soldier while guaranteeing survival with science fictional medical technology. But now compare:.
I think 4 is still morally preferable to causing the kind of disruption to the lives of a million people that plan 3 would involve. These may seem to be consequentialist arguments. I don't think so. I don't have the same intuitions if we replace the general by the general's innocent child in 2 and 4 , even if killing the child were to stop the war e. A normative power is a power to change a normative condition.
Here is a picture on which this is correct. We exercise a normative power by exercising a natural power in such a context that the successful exercise of the natural power is partly constitutive of a normative fact. For instance, we utter a promise, thereby exercising a natural power to engage in a certain kind of speech act, and our exercise of that speech act is partly constitutive of, rather than causal of, the state of affairs of our being obligated to carry out the promised action.
There are two versions of the above model. On one version, there is an underlying fundamental conditional normative fact C , such as that if I have promised something then I should do it, and my exercise of normative power supplies the antecedent A of that conditional, and then the normative consequent of C comes to be grounded in C and A.
On another version, there there are some natural acts that are directly constitutive of a normative state of affairs, not merely by supplying the antecedent of a conditional normative fact. I think the first version of the model is the more plausible in paradigmatic cases. But why not allow for a causal model? Why not suppose that a normative power is a causal power to make an irreducible normative property come to be instantiated in someone?
Thus, my power to promise is the power to cause myself to be obligated to do what I have promised. I think the difficulty with a causal model is the fact that in paradigm cases of normative power, there is a natural power that is being exercised, and we have the intuition that the exercise of the natural power is necessary and sufficient for the normative effect.
Maybe the answer to both questions is that I could, but only metaphysically and not causally. In other words, it could be that the laws of nature, or of human nature, make it impossible for me to exercise one of the powers without the other, just as I cannot wiggle my ring finger without wiggling my middle finger as well. On this view, if there is a God, he could cause me to acquire promissory-type obligations without my promising, and he could let me engage in the natural act of promising while blocking the exercise of normative power and leaving me normatively unbound.
Perhaps the real problem for a lot of people with a causal view of normative powers is that it tends to lead to a violation of supervenience. But supervenience does not seem to me to be inescapable. Saturday, December 17, The right can be derived from the good.
There is a way to connect the right and wrong with the good and bad: An action is right respectively, wrong if and only if it is noninstrumentally good respectively, bad to do it. Labels: bad , good , Natural Law , right , wrong. Variation in priors and community epistemic goods. Here is a hypothesis: It is epistemically better for the human community if human beings do not all have the same ur- priors.
But does epistemic rationality care about what is good for the community? Labels: Bayesianism , Natural Law , permissivism , priors , rationality. Friday, December 16, Panteleology: A few preliminary notes. Panteleology holds that teleology is ubiquitous. Every substance aims at some end. Labels: appetitions , God , Leibniz , panpsychism , panteleology , quantum mechanics , teleology.
Wednesday, December 14, The right cannot be derived from the good. Consider the following thesis that both Kantians, utilitarians and New Natural Law thinkers will agree on: All facts about rightness and wrongness can be derived from descriptive facts, facts about non-rightness value, and a small number of fundamental abstract moral principles. I think 1 is false. I think counterexamples to 1 can be multiplied. Labels: good , Kantianism , Natural Law , right.
People often talk of moral norms as overriding. In those cases, presumably: You are N -forbidden to ϕ but morally permitted to ϕ. Then, it seems: You are N -forbidden to ϕ and not morally permitted to ϕ. Labels: morality , norms , overridingness , reasons. Thursday, December 8, Utilitarianism, egoism and promises. Labels: act utilitarianism , egoism , promises.
Utilitarianism and communication. Labels: communication , language , social convention , utilitarianism. Wednesday, December 7, Transfer of endurance. I have no idea if anything like this transfer works for other people. Labels: patience , transfer problem , virtue. Tuesday, December 6, Dividing up reasons.
Labels: moral reasons , nonmeasurable sets , probability , prudential reasons , reasons. Monday, December 5, Greek mathematics. I think. All this decidability and definability stuff confuses me often. Labels: arithmetic , geometry , mathematics.
Saturday, December 3, A new but uncertified world record. The top of the wall is I trained for about three months, not very heavily. In training did two unofficial full-length practice runs, and in each I beat the previous record: in the first one I got The route was a standard 5. For the final attempt, we added holds to make the finish at the top of the wall, and changed three other holds to easier ones.
Guinness has no route grade requirements. A Kindle Fire running a pre-release version of my Giant Stopwatch app provided unofficial timing for audience to see and for my pacing.
I had to modify the app to have a periodic beep to meet Guinness's requirements of an audible stop signal. I climbed in sets of The planned pace was per set and a second rest between sets clock runs during rests, , averaging at I was always ahead of pace, and I occasionally took a mini break at the mid-point time if I was too far ahead. On the ground there was a sheet of paper with the start and end times of each break printed in large letters calculated by this script , as well as the mid-point time for each set of 10 to keep me better on pace.
I wore moderately worn one small hole and comfortable 5. I have not received any sponsorship. My belayer used a tube-style device and wore belay gloves.
In the morning I stress-baked pumpkin muffins for myself and the volunteers. I had the muffins, water and loose chalk on a table for use during breaks. About half-way through, I ducked into the storage area inside the rock and changed to a dry shirt.
Most of my practice was with an auto-belay, and at a shorter distance per climb and hence greater number of climbs needed since the auto-belay makes it impossible to get to the top of the wall. The auto-belay is also spring loaded so it effectively decreases body weight by 7 lbs at the bottom according to my measurement.
Then a couple of weeks ago the auto-belay was closed by management due to a maintenance issue, and I had a break in training until the Wednesday before the official attempt when I trained with a manual belay.
Please check back soon for future events, and sign up to receive invitations to our events and briefings. December 1, Speaker Series on California's Future — Virtual Event. November 30, Virtual Event. November 18, Annual Water Conference — In-Person and Online.
We believe in the power of good information to build a brighter future for California. Help support our mission. Mark Baldassare , Dean Bonner , Rachel Lawler , and Deja Thomas. Supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F. Miller Foundation and the James Irvine Foundation. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage.
Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional officers and state legislators and to make policy decisions about state propositions. The midterm election also features a closely divided Congress, with the likelihood that a few races in California may determine which party controls the US House. These are among the key findings of a statewide survey on state and national issues conducted from October 14 to 23 by the Public Policy Institute of California:.
Today, there is a wide partisan divide: seven in ten Democrats are optimistic about the direction of the state, while 91 percent of Republicans and 59 percent of independents are pessimistic.
Californians are much more pessimistic about the direction of the country than they are about the direction of the state. Majorities across all demographic groups and partisan groups, as well as across regions, are pessimistic about the direction of the United States. A wide partisan divide exists: most Democrats and independents say their financial situation is about the same as a year ago, while solid majorities of Republicans say they are worse off.
Regionally, about half in the San Francisco Bay Area and Los Angeles say they are about the same, while half in the Central Valley say they are worse off; residents elsewhere are divided between being worse off and the same. The shares saying they are worse off decline as educational attainment increases. Strong majorities across partisan groups feel negatively, but Republicans and independents are much more likely than Democrats to say the economy is in poor shape. Today, majorities across partisan, demographic, and regional groups say they are following news about the gubernatorial election either very or fairly closely.
In the upcoming November 8 election, there will be seven state propositions for voters. Due to time constraints, our survey only asked about three ballot measures: Propositions 26, 27, and For each, we read the proposition number, ballot, and ballot label.
Two of the state ballot measures were also included in the September survey Propositions 27 and 30 , while Proposition 26 was not. This measure would allow in-person sports betting at racetracks and tribal casinos, requiring that racetracks and casinos offering sports betting make certain payments to the state to support state regulatory costs.
It also allows roulette and dice games at tribal casinos and adds a new way to enforce certain state gambling laws. Fewer than half of likely voters say the outcome of each of these state propositions is very important to them. Today, 21 percent of likely voters say the outcome of Prop 26 is very important, 31 percent say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important, and 42 percent say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important.
Today, when it comes to the importance of the outcome of Prop 26, one in four or fewer across partisan groups say it is very important to them. About one in three across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 27 is very important to them. Fewer than half across partisan groups say the outcome of Prop 30 is very important to them. When asked how they would vote if the election for the US House of Representatives were held today, 56 percent of likely voters say they would vote for or lean toward the Democratic candidate, while 39 percent would vote for or lean toward the Republican candidate.
Democratic candidates are preferred by a point margin in Democratic-held districts, while Republican candidates are preferred by a point margin in Republican-held districts. Abortion is another prominent issue in this election. When asked about the importance of abortion rights, 61 percent of likely voters say the issue is very important in determining their vote for Congress and another 20 percent say it is somewhat important; just 17 percent say it is not too or not at all important.
With the controlling party in Congress hanging in the balance, 51 percent of likely voters say they are extremely or very enthusiastic about voting for Congress this year; another 29 percent are somewhat enthusiastic while 19 percent are either not too or not at all enthusiastic.
Today, Democrats and Republicans have about equal levels of enthusiasm, while independents are much less likely to be extremely or very enthusiastic. As Californians prepare to vote in the upcoming midterm election, fewer than half of adults and likely voters are satisfied with the way democracy is working in the United States—and few are very satisfied.
Satisfaction was higher in our February survey when 53 percent of adults and 48 percent of likely voters were satisfied with democracy in America.
Today, half of Democrats and about four in ten independents are satisfied, compared to about one in five Republicans. Notably, four in ten Republicans are not at all satisfied. In addition to the lack of satisfaction with the way democracy is working, Californians are divided about whether Americans of different political positions can still come together and work out their differences.
Forty-nine percent are optimistic, while 46 percent are pessimistic. Today, in a rare moment of bipartisan agreement, about four in ten Democrats, Republicans, and independents are optimistic that Americans of different political views will be able to come together. Notably, in , half or more across parties, regions, and demographic groups were optimistic. Today, about eight in ten Democrats—compared to about half of independents and about one in ten Republicans—approve of Governor Newsom.
Across demographic groups, about half or more approve of how Governor Newsom is handling his job. Approval of Congress among adults has been below 40 percent for all of after seeing a brief run above 40 percent for all of Democrats are far more likely than Republicans to approve of Congress. Fewer than half across regions and demographic groups approve of Congress.
Approval in March was at 44 percent for adults and 39 percent for likely voters. Across demographic groups, about half or more approve among women, younger adults, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinos. Views are similar across education and income groups, with just fewer than half approving.
Approval in March was at 41 percent for adults and 36 percent for likely voters. Across regions, approval reaches a majority only in the San Francisco Bay Area. Across demographic groups, approval reaches a majority only among African Americans. This map highlights the five geographic regions for which we present results; these regions account for approximately 90 percent of the state population. Residents of other geographic areas in gray are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately.
The PPIC Statewide Survey is directed by Mark Baldassare, president and CEO and survey director at the Public Policy Institute of California. Coauthors of this report include survey analyst Deja Thomas, who was the project manager for this survey; associate survey director and research fellow Dean Bonner; and survey analyst Rachel Lawler. The Californians and Their Government survey is supported with funding from the Arjay and Frances F.
Findings in this report are based on a survey of 1, California adult residents, including 1, interviewed on cell phones and interviewed on landline telephones. The sample included respondents reached by calling back respondents who had previously completed an interview in PPIC Statewide Surveys in the last six months.
Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete. Interviewing took place on weekend days and weekday nights from October 14—23, Cell phone interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of cell phone numbers. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of cell phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All cell phone numbers with California area codes were eligible for selection.
After a cell phone user was reached, the interviewer verified that this person was age 18 or older, a resident of California, and in a safe place to continue the survey e. Cell phone respondents were offered a small reimbursement to help defray the cost of the call. Cell phone interviews were conducted with adults who have cell phone service only and with those who have both cell phone and landline service in the household.
Landline interviews were conducted using a computer-generated random sample of telephone numbers that ensured that both listed and unlisted numbers were called. Additionally, we utilized a registration-based sample RBS of landline phone numbers for adults who are registered to vote in California. All landline telephone exchanges in California were eligible for selection.
For both cell phones and landlines, telephone numbers were called as many as eight times. When no contact with an individual was made, calls to a number were limited to six. Also, to increase our ability to interview Asian American adults, we made up to three additional calls to phone numbers estimated by Survey Sampling International as likely to be associated with Asian American individuals.
Accent on Languages, Inc. The survey sample was closely comparable to the ACS figures. To estimate landline and cell phone service in California, Abt Associates used state-level estimates released by the National Center for Health Statistics—which used data from the National Health Interview Survey NHIS and the ACS. The estimates for California were then compared against landline and cell phone service reported in this survey.
We also used voter registration data from the California Secretary of State to compare the party registration of registered voters in our sample to party registration statewide. The sampling error, taking design effects from weighting into consideration, is ±3. This means that 95 times out of , the results will be within 3. The sampling error for unweighted subgroups is larger: for the 1, registered voters, the sampling error is ±4.
For the sampling errors of additional subgroups, please see the table at the end of this section. Sampling error is only one type of error to which surveys are subject.
Results may also be affected by factors such as question wording, question order, and survey timing. We present results for five geographic regions, accounting for approximately 90 percent of the state population.
Residents of other geographic areas are included in the results reported for all adults, registered voters, and likely voters, but sample sizes for these less-populous areas are not large enough to report separately. We also present results for congressional districts currently held by Democrats or Republicans, based on residential zip code and party of the local US House member.
We compare the opinions of those who report they are registered Democrats, registered Republicans, and no party preference or decline-to-state or independent voters; the results for those who say they are registered to vote in other parties are not large enough for separate analysis.
We also analyze the responses of likely voters—so designated per their responses to survey questions about voter registration, previous election participation, intentions to vote this year, attention to election news, and current interest in politics. The percentages presented in the report tables and in the questionnaire may not add to due to rounding.
Additional details about our methodology can be found at www. pdf and are available upon request through surveys ppic. October 14—23, 1, California adult residents; 1, California likely voters English, Spanish. Margin of error ±3.
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