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Coercive or controlling behaviour is common in domestic abuse and can coincide with many of the other behaviours, as illustrated in the case study below.

Susan had been with her partner for almost 20 years and he had been abusive towards her from early on. She was forced to borrow money from close family as he emptied her account as soon as her wages went in every month.

Her partner was incredibly jealous whenever she left the house, even to go to work. He would insist on driving her to the front door of her workplace and picking her up from exactly the same place. He thought I was seeing other people at work. Silly things.

Maybe they all knew. But no one ever said. Eventually they said that she had to leave as she was too unreliable to be part of the team.

And a break from everything back home. I was completely floored when I lost it all. My ex completely lost it when he realised what this meant. Following a further attack where Susan was stabbed with a kitchen knife and feared for her life, she called the police.

She then moved to a refuge. Perpetrators can use technology and social media as a means of controlling or coercing victims. This happens frequently both during and after relationships with abusers and is particularly common amongst younger people.

Examples of online abuse include:. image-based abuse — for example the non-consensual distribution or threat thereof of private sexual photographs and films with the intent to cause the person depicted distress revenge porn.

use of spyware or GPS locators on items such as phones, computers, wearable technology, cars, motorbikes and pets. using personal devices such as smart watches or smart home devices such as Amazon Alexa, Google Home Hubs to monitor, control or frighten; and. turning children and friends against the victim which may have a subsequent impact on children including falsely and without justification telling a child that the other parent abandoned them, never loved them, or never wanted them.

being insulted, including in front of others - this includes insulting someone about their race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, faith or belief, ability to parent and ability to work. using violence or threats towards pets to intimidate the victim and cause distress, including threatening to harm the animal as well as controlling how the owner is able to care for the animal.

mocking someone about their disability, gender identity, religious or faith belief, sexual orientation, physical appearance and so on. Spiritual abuse is commonly understood as a part of emotional and psychological abuse that uses religion and faith systems to control and subjugate a victim [footnote 27].

It is often characterised by a systemic pattern of coercive or controlling behaviour within a religious context. Spiritual abuse can have a deeply damaging impact on victims. The abuse may include, the following but is not limited to:. This can include accusations of witchcraft, where the term witchcraft and association with it are used in a derogatory way. Spiritual abuse can also involve, using, or preventing a victim from practising their faith or religious obligations.

This may include:. forcing the victim to act or behave in ways which contradict religious beliefs and or spiritual rituals and practice, for example, forcing the victim to transgress religious dietary observations. forcing sexual acts which contradict religious observance and or religious law for example, during and after menstruation or pre-marital sex ; and,.

forcing or limiting access to abortion, birth control or sterilisation when this will contravene religious observance. Religious marriages from faith communities other than Christianity are not recognised in British law.

A couple need to register their religious marriage for them to access their legal rights and obligations under British law.

This can be used by perpetrators to:. actively discourage or prevent the marriage being registered in British law ensuring that women are denied their legal rights in the event of a breakdown in the marriage - this along with an insecure immigration status of the victim can act as a powerful tool for coercion and control.

coerce or trick women into being part of a multiple marriage where the husband can have more than one wife at the same time. A form of spiritual abuse may include the withholding of a religious divorce, as a threat to control and intimidate victims. In some cases, it will be accompanied by other manifestations of abuse within the marriage.

In Judaism this concerns the Get [footnote 29] , and instances whereby a recalcitrant husband may refuse to give his wife a Jewish bill of divorce or a wife may unreasonably refuse to accept a Jewish bill of divorce. Unreasonably preventing a religious Jewish marriage being dissolved often includes the imposition of such conditions. The ability to refuse to give a Get provides abusive husbands with power and control and will be used often to exert leverage in relation to other aspects of the divorce.

It affects her ability to re-marry and directly affects the status of any children she may have in the future. In Islam this can involve the refusal of a Muslim husband to grant his wife a religious divorce, talaq, [footnote 31] which is the annulment of a nikkah, [footnote 32] as a way of prolonging the process of divorce.

The threat of talaq being uttered and the arbitrary use of this by perpetrators may also often be cited by some victims. Whilst Islamic law enabled women can obtain a religious divorce of their own accord, they may be prevented from doing so through religious courts on which they are reliant. Refusing to let a partner practise their religion may also constitute a form of spiritual abuse, for example, restricting access to worship and their religion.

Deborah, a year-old woman who was a convert to Judaism, married and settled in the UK after moving to the UK from overseas. Once married, she fully participated in Jewish community life. Her husband abused her from the start of their marriage — playing endless mind games and seeming to take pleasure in controlling her and making her life miserable.

She was terrified that the abuse would escalate and sought help from a specialist service. A referral to legal support meant that a non-molestation order was granted with a power of arrest. Deborah left her husband after less than a year of marriage and was subsequently divorced in the civil courts. She was keen to obtain her Jewish divorce so that she could move on with her life, marry again and end the Jewish religious marriage.

The courts finalised the decree of divorce but failed in their efforts to encourage her husband to give Deborah her Get. She was informed that he would give the Get only if she agreed to leave the UK and promise never to return, and he further coerced her to apply to have the injunction which was in place to protect her, discharged.

She felt abused and controlled by him during both her marriage and after she was divorced in the courts, when he continued to exert power and control over her whilst she was trying to obtain her Get. In another case, Hannah was made to wait more than 20 years following her civil decree absolute. Her husband consistently refused to give her a Get in spite of repeated requests from her — Hannah felt that he used it to leverage control over her, even though the marriage was over in her eyes and they were living apart.

Eventually, her community found out about the persistent Get refusal and they campaigned for him to give her a Get. There was eventually a ruling from the Beth Din Jewish court that he was required to give the Get. Receiving it marked the end of many long years of struggle and abuse, and Hannah felt that it represented her freedom.

She said that she would never be able to get back those long years when she was trapped by her abusive ex-husband in a marriage which had long ended.

HBA can cover emotional or psychological abuse and a range of other circumstances, not all of which represent domestic abuse under the Act, for example if the victim and perpetrator are not personally connected.

However, HBA will typically be carried out by a member or members of the family and is likely to involve behaviours specified in the statutory definition of domestic abuse in the Act. Victims may be female or male and those at risk can include individuals who are LGBT. Economic abuse [footnote 35] can also be a form of controlling or coercive behaviour, where it is done repeatedly or continuously. Examples of economic abuse might include the following, where they have a substantial adverse effect on the victim:.

interfering with or preventing a victim from regularising their immigration status so that they are economically dependent on the perpetrator. preventing a victim from claiming welfare benefits, or forcing someone to commit benefit fraud or misappropriating such benefits. The organisation Surviving Economic Abuse has created a guide to understanding economic abuse for victims.

Individuals can be the victims of multiple and different abusive behaviours because of the way different characteristics, such as immigration status, sex, race, ethnicity, age, religion or belief, socio-economic position, gender identity and sexual orientation intersect and overlap, particularly in relation to accessing services and support if they are not adequately designed to meet their needs.

It is important that commissioners, service providers and statutory agencies consider this intersectionality when developing their responses to both adult and child victims, in order to fully identify the lived experiences of all victims vis-a-vis the abusive behaviour they experience and ensure that services are provided to victims without discrimination.

There are many practical and psychological barriers that victims may face when accessing support including feeling shame or guilt, fear of what the perpetrator will do to them or their children, or a belief that the situation might get better. We want, wherever possible, for victims to stay in their homes. Sometimes however it is not safe to do so. Physically leaving the perpetrator does not mean all of the risks have been overcome; rather, the risks are even greater: women are at the greatest risk of homicide at the point of separation or after leaving an abusive partner [footnote 37].

For many victims, ending the relationship is not possible as they feel that the risks are so great. Furthermore, if a victim is experiencing abuse from their child or another member of the family, particularly if they are providing them with care, they may feel that leaving them may not ever be possible. Other factors that can also create additional barriers to accessing support are listed below. Other protected characteristics, such as age, disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex and sexual orientation also create specific barriers to leaving an abusive relationship.

Other considerations that need to be taken into account when supporting victims are discussed below. The definition of domestic abuse in the Act includes a minimum age for the victim and the perpetrator of 16 years.

However, CPS guidance applies to all cases of domestic abuse irrespective of the age of the perpetrator or victim including those under This approach means it is possible to apply for protective orders such as Restraining Orders to benefit victims under 16 as well as determining if diversion or prosecution is appropriate to help early intervention for perpetrators who are under 16 years of age.

Older people can be victims of interpersonal violence, or abuse by family members. This abuse may include economic, emotional, psychological, sexual or physical abuse or neglect and can affect both men and women. Assumptions around age and domestic abuse may result when accessing support. Abuse can be experienced at any age. Whilst there is evidence to suggest that older women experience domestic abuse at similar rates to younger women [footnote 39] , as the Crime Survey England and Wales does not currently collect data on adults over 74 we do not know the true prevalence of domestic abuse amongst this age group [footnote 40].

Data from the year ending March Crime Survey of England and Wales CSEW shows that 4. Older victims are not being seen by specialist support services in the numbers that we would expect [footnote 42] and can face significant barriers when asking for help or when trying to leave an abusive relationship.

These barriers can be severe for victims who have been subject to years of prolonged abuse, are isolated within a particular community through language or culture, are experiencing long-term health impacts or disabilities, or those who are reliant on their abuser for their care or money.

It Is crucial that older victims can get the support they need, and their experiences are supported. Data from the year ending March CSEW shows that those with a disability were more likely to have been victims of domestic abuse in the last year than those without; this is true for both men 7.

Disabled victims are more likely to face abuse from an adult family member compared to non-disabled victims, and are also more likely to be still living with the perpetrator [footnote 44]. Deaf and disabled victims this includes physical disabilities, mental health difficulties, learning difficulties, cognitive issues, long-term health conditions and neurodiversity may face additional forms of abuse related to a disability.

Disabled victims face multiple barriers to seeking and receiving help to escape domestic abuse, for example, accessible accommodation and transport, the need for assistance with personal care or sign language interpreters, fear of losing their children, and possibly, for specialised emotional support, factors which impact their decision and ability to leave.

It is important to highlight the experiences of Deaf victims, many of whom do not identify themselves as being part of a disability group.

The Deaf community are a linguistic minority based on their language and many Deaf people experience personal and structural barriers in accessing help and reporting abuse. The Deaf community experience issues similar to other minoritized groups, with additional barriers including language and communication, a distrust of police and a fear of rejection from the wider community. There is also likely to be under reporting of abuse by Deaf victims due to the barriers to communication and information.

Professionals and service providers should be aware that Deaf and disabled victims need specialist support services who can understand their cultural and linguistic needs. The lives of Deaf people cross multiple intersectional divides, and like many marginalised communities, can face systemic barriers which prevent them from easily accessing appropriate support services in times of need. Where possible, professionals working with Deaf and disabled victims should be expected to have some lived experience of the Deaf community, as having to relive their trauma time and again with new people for example, sign language interpreters can be disruptive to their healing and may result in them disengaging from much needed support.

This may also be relevant for those with a learning disability who may use an advocate or carer to support their process of talking about their experience. Deaf people are often underrepresented in professional roles, which makes them a valuable resource when seeking out appropriate referral pathways - the ability to share a common language and culture ensures that Deaf people can control their own narrative and their perspectives and experiences are able to be fully understood by those who are supporting them.

Following best practice, Deaf clients should always be signposted or referred on to a Deaf domestic abuse service see Appendix A or a Deaf-led specialist service in the first instance. In order to achieve optimum outcomes, professionals working with Deaf victims should be able to communicate fluently using sign language, without the need for third party communication support.

Organisations and agencies should also consider collaborative working relationships with other specialist services, so that they are able to jointly meet the needs of their clients through the sharing of resources, knowledge and complementary skillsets. People facing communication barriers are also extremely vulnerable to domestic abuse, given the added difficulties they face in asking for help and accessing the support available.

Local authorities should ensure that good practice includes the identification of, and appropriate support for, communication needs, including:. Speech, language and communication services for children and young people are covered by joint commissioning arrangements set out in the Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Code of Practice , which brings education, health and local authorities, and Youth Offending Teams together to assess needs and agree a local offer.

Joint commissioning gives agencies the opportunity to consider the wider factors and interdependencies, such as domestic abuse, and design services accordingly. For more information on special education needs and disabilities, and the impact on children expressing their feelings, please see paragraph While lesbian women report slightly higher rates of domestic abuse to those of heterosexual women However, LGBT victims may also experience abuse of power and control closely associated with having their sexuality or gender identity used against them.

This may include the following abusive behaviours: [footnote 49]. Abuse disclosed by lesbian women may be different to that of bisexual and trans women. LGBT people experience distinct personal and structural barriers in accessing help and reporting abuse. It can also include lack of understanding and awareness by professionals around unique forms of coercive control targeted at sexual orientation or gender identity, and professionals minimising the risk experienced by LGBT people.

Most LGBT people feel that they would be more accepted at an LGBT specialist service. Domestic abuse perpetrated towards women by men is a form of violence against women and girls VAWG and is linked to wider gender inequality, misogyny and perceptions around harmful gender norms. These may include a belief in stereotypical gender roles, such as men being dominant in relationships and women being submissive, or that men should be in charge of family finances and should be entitled to make decisions.

Whilst the statutory definition of domestic abuse is gender-neutral, we recognise that more women than men are affected by domestic abuse. Statistics from the last ONS bulletin showed that in the year ending March women were around twice as likely to have experienced domestic abuse as men. Research [footnote 53] also suggests that when controlling or coercive behaviour is taken into account, the differences between the experiences of male and female victims becomes more apparent, with the majority of victims being women.

Women are far more likely than men to experience repeated and severe forms of abuse, including sexual violence. Women experience higher rates of repeated victimisation and are much more likely to be seriously hurt or killed than male victims of domestic abuse. We recognise that men are also victims of domestic abuse. Whilst they experience many similar types of abuse as women, men can face specific barriers, including shame, fear of stigmatisation, concerns about being believed, not recognising that they are victims of domestic abuse and lack of promotion of services to support them.

There remains within society a view that men cannot be victims of domestic abuse. Their relationship began like any other. They were both teachers working at the same school, and nothing seemed out of the ordinary. At first she was caring but then things started to change. She began to lock him out of their home or leave him on the side of the road, miles from home with no money. He was locked out of the house around 60 times over the course of almost 10 years.

She sometimes would take his wallet and keys so he had no way of getting home. He found himself walking on eggshells, being coerced into situations he did not want to be in. He felt he could not leave the family home for the sake of their daughter. Sam realised he had to take action after he suffered serious injury when his wife attacked him with a hair dryer. Colleagues at the school he worked at came to know about the issues he was facing and they were supportive towards him.

After the attack, the school offered him paid time off to recover and paid for him to receive counselling. The school also provided him with further time off so that he could appear in court.

This meant that he was able to give vital evidence of the abuse he had been suffering for nearly a decade. Sam feels that his situation shows that in coming forward male victims will be taken seriously and given the right support. Pregnancy is a specific risk factor that can make victims more vulnerable. Pregnancy can be a trigger for domestic abuse and existing abuse may get worse during pregnancy or after giving birth.

This can affect the cognitive functioning and emotional regulation of children, shaping behavioural and emotional outcomes. Whilst pregnancy may increase risk of abuse, it should also be recognised that the interaction with health professionals may provide an opportunity for women to seek support, as well as for professionals to reach out to women who may be experiencing domestic abuse.

Paragraph in this guidance sets out further information about the role of health professionals including in exercising their professional curiosity and reaching out to pregnant women to offer support in relation to domestic abuse. Health and social care professionals should also be alert to the need to offer support and safeguarding to the child post-birth if necessary. Those from ethnic minority backgrounds may experience additional barriers to identifying, disclosing, seeking help or reporting abuse.

There are distinct structural barriers that minority communities face in accessing support. Victims who have entered the UK from overseas may face barriers when attempting to escape domestic abuse relating to their immigration status or lack thereof.

Some victims may not have access to public services and funds which can lead to greater dependence on the partner or family if they have supported their being in the UK. They may also face a greater economic impact of leaving an abuser if they are unable to claim benefits or access housing, or if they lose their immigration status by leaving their partner, including destitution and homelessness. This may be exploited by partners or family members to exert control over victims. Examples of this include:.

Perpetrators may use the insecure immigration status of a victim to coerce and control them. A report illustrates how insecure immigration status can be a coercive control tool. There are a range of support mechanisms in place for migrant victims of domestic abuse, including specific support for asylum seekers, local authority support, a change of NRPF conditions, fee waivers, support for victims of trafficking and modern slavery through the National Referral Mechanism, and the Home Office Support for Migrant Victims Scheme.

A key barrier to migrant victims of domestic abuse accessing support is the difficulty organisations face in funding bed spaces and ancillary services in a refuge for victims with NRPF. The £1. It provides accommodation and support for migrant victims of domestic abuse with NRPF, as well as building the evidence base required to inform subsequent policy decisions see paragraph Migrant victims on some spousal visas are eligible for the DDVC.

This concession enables these victims to apply for leave to remain without the NRPF condition when their relationship has broken down because of domestic abuse, they are destitute, and intend to subsequently make an application for indefinite leave to remain as a victim of domestic abuse.

These victims can then apply to claim public funds benefits for up to three months while they make an application to settle in the UK. This helps migrant victims on spousal visas to fund a refuge space with the housing element of the benefits they can claim because their NRPF condition has been lifted.

The DDVC is only available to those on spousal visas because they have a clear, legitimate expectation of settlement. Had their relationship not broken down as a result of domestic abuse, they would have had a legitimate expectation of staying in the UK permanently, having relocated on that basis. Should those on other immigration routes become the victim of domestic abuse, while the abuse is no less tragic, they would not necessarily have had a legitimate expectation of staying in the UK permanently had their relationship not broken down as a result of domestic abuse, as their ability to do so was contingent upon more than simply staying in their relationship.

It is possible that victims may also be reluctant to report abuse due to the fear of information sharing by the police and other statutory services with the Home Office for the purpose of immigration control. These organisations can provide holistic wraparound support and safeguard for migrant victims. A list of organisations is available at Annex A. Ms K reached out to the police and Southall Black Sisters SBS for help after experiencing domestic abuse upon relocating to the UK.

She was able to access emergency accommodation, counselling and legal advice. Within three weeks of her marriage, Ms K was subjected to physical, verbal and emotional abuse and forced into domestic servitude. Her mother-in-law continuously verbally harassed her; she called her names and encouraged her husband to use her as a slave.

She fell pregnant but was forced to continue to do all the housework late into her pregnancy. The abuse towards Ms K escalated during her pregnancy. She attempted to leave, but her mother-in-law forced her to sit down again, telling her she had to stay until she gave birth and then give the baby to them. He became extremely angry and threw her belongings onto the driveway and told her not to return.

The police referred her to SBS, but later, she reconciled with her husband following coercion from her in-laws and retracted her complaint. However, soon after reconciling, her husband began to abuse her again. To ensure that she had no opportunity to disclose the abuse to anyone outside the family, her mother in-law accompanied her to her GP appointments.

She lived in constant fear for her life and that of her child. Ms K gave birth to her son but following this the abuse towards her escalated. All of this led to her feeling isolated and trapped in her marital home. Her mother in-law often told Ms K that the baby belonged to her, and they were capable of killing Ms K and keeping the baby.

Following a number of death threats to Ms K and her family, and the relentless physical and verbal abuse to which she was subjected, Ms K finally decided to leave the marital home. She made a complaint to the local police and contacted SBS for assistance.

SBS were able to assist Ms K with making a complaint to the police and draw up a safety plan. They liaised with social services to help secure emergency accommodation for her and her son, referred Ms K to support and counselling services and helped her to obtain legal advice regarding her immigration status. This includes asylum seekers who are victims of domestic abuse.

An asylum seeker is destitute if they lack adequate accommodation or the means of obtaining it. The Asylum Support Regulations make clear that accommodation is not adequate if remaining in it exposes the individual to risk of domestic violence. Whilst there have always been procedures in place to provide asylum seekers who fall victim to domestic abuse with immediate support and safe accommodation, this did not until recently extend to providing a place in a dedicated refuge where specialist support is available.

Arrangements are now in place to use the asylum support budget to close a gap which prevented asylum seekers and their dependants supported under section 95 of the Act from accessing a refuge. The policy is designed to ensure asylum seekers who are victims of domestic abuse receive the specialist support they need.

This statutory guidance applies to asylum seekers who are entitled to asylum support, which will be provided whether in supported accommodation or a specialist refuge. Those granted refugee status or humanitarian protection in the UK have access to support provisions in the same way as anyone else residing in the UK with recourse to public funds.

Asylum seekers can remain supported by the Home Office while their claim is being processed and recognised refugees have the right to work, access to benefits and can apply for housing. Local authorities may also provide basic safety net support, regardless of immigration status, if it is established that there is a genuine care need that does not arise solely from destitution, for example, where there are community care needs, migrants with serious health problems or family cases where the wellbeing of a child is in question.

An application to lift the NRPF status is available for migrants on certain specified human rights routes to settlement, such as the five-year parent route or year partner, parent or private life route. An applicant who has encountered a change in their circumstances and due to this will be destitute or imminently destitute, has a child whose particular additional and essential needs will not be met without access to public funds, or is encountering exceptional financial circumstances, may qualify for their NRPF status to be lifted.

Fee waivers are available for certain specified in-country human rights applications where a migrant is exercising the right to remain in the UK based on family or private life, but cannot afford the fee, is destitute, at risk of imminent destitution, or has a child whose particular additional and essential needs will not be met if the fee is paid. These include applicants under the five-year parent route and the year partner, parent or private life route. The National Referral Mechanism can support victims in cases of modern slavery by identifying them and referring them to receive the appropriate support see paragraphs to In June , the Joint Committee on the draft Domestic Abuse Bill published its first report.

The committee highlighted that some migrant victims of domestic abuse who have NRPF and do not qualify for the DDVC or other avenues of support may be faced with the choice of staying with a perpetrator of abuse or becoming homeless and destitute if they do not know how to access support.

The government consequently reviewed its overall response to migrant victims of domestic abuse, working with 24 expert organisations and publishing review findings in July That is why the government launched the £1. The Support for Migrant Victims scheme is designed to provide support to those individuals who fall through the gaps of other support mechanisms, such as the DDVC.

It provides a safety net of support through provision of accommodation in a refuge or other relevant accommodation. Additionally, the scheme can provide wraparound provisions, including emotional support, and more practical support in forms such as immigration advice to aid victims in their recovery and navigation of advice and the options available to them to move on from that support.

The support it provides can be tailored to the needs of individual victims. Victims who follow a religion or are from faith backgrounds may experience additional barriers to receiving help or reporting abuse due to issues with accessing support due to their religious identity and their faith community.

Many will fear their faith being misunderstood and concerns around whether they will be believed. Specialist services should seek to understand the varying manifestations of spiritual abuse and use of how each or a mix of culture, religious tradition and holy scripture can be used as tools of abuse by perpetrators. Support services should be aware that a lack of understanding of these intersections can lead to silencing victims from faith backgrounds and reinforce barriers to receiving support from agencies such as the police, courts, social care, and housing.

Many victims from faith backgrounds can share concerns centred on their race, and sexuality. Alcohol and drug misuse increase the likelihood and severity of domestic abuse and although there is not a simple causal relationship between substance misuse and domestic abuse, there is a frequent coexistence between them. Professionals working with victims must acknowledge that some victims may use alcohol and drugs as a coping mechanism in response to abuse.

Women who have experienced extensive physical and sexual violence are more than twice as likely to have a problem with alcohol than those who have little experience of being abused. Women-only provisions of substance use services are available in less than half of local authorities in England and Wales [footnote 73] and a lack of anonymity compounded with a lack of services that fit around childcare arrangements can also be a barrier to treatment.

Professionals should also recognise the consequence that alcohol-related abuse may have on children. Lower socio-economic groups experience higher levels of alcohol-related harm than wealthier groups, despite drinking less on average.

This holds true for alcohol-related violence, with the poorest groups being most affected by alcohol-related domestic abuse. The most deprived groups experience as much as 14 times as many incidents of alcohol-related domestic abuse every year, compared with the least deprived.

The prevalence rate of alcohol-related domestic abuse is also five times higher among the most disadvantaged groups compared to the least disadvantaged. Similarly, the co-occurrence of drug and alcohol use, homelessness, criminal justice system involvement and mental health will often mean that victims will face huge challenges when seeking support.

It is paramount that statutory services take an intersectional approach that is mindful of the multiple barriers and layers of discrimination faced by these groups when planning and delivering services. Domestic abuse can have a long-lasting effect on victims. It can lead to the development of lasting health problems, such as mental health issues including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder and eating disorders.

Frontline professionals have a responsibility to safeguard and support victims of domestic abuse with these health-related problems and it is important that professionals identify and consider the issues of alcohol support, substance misuse and mental health needs of affected victims.

Local authorities should assess the accommodation-based support needs of all domestic abuse victims and their children as stated in section 57 of the Domestic Abuse Act For more detail, please see paragraph There is no statutory definition of harassment, but it includes repeated attempts to impose unwanted communications and contact upon a victim in a manner that could be expected to cause distress or fear in any reasonable person.

It is generally acknowledged to cover behaviour that is intended to cause a person alarm or distress or to cause them to fear violence when the perpetrator knows or ought to know that their conduct amounts to harassment. Where there is evidence to show that such conduct has occurred on more than one occasion, the perpetrator could be prosecuted.

Similarly, there is no definition of stalking, which is a form of harassment, although examples of the type of behaviour considered to be stalking are set out in section 2A of the Protection from Harassment Act the Act.

This list is not exhaustive, nor does the offence require a personal connection, which means it is wider and differs from domestic abuse. The police and CPS have also adopted the following description, which appears in the guidance on Stalking Protection Order: stalking is a pattern of unwanted, fixated and obsessive behaviour which is intrusive. It can include harassment that amounts to stalking or stalking that causes fear of violence or serious alarm or distress to the victim.

Even though the actual stalking behaviour shown by a perpetrator may vary, they are often motivated by obsession and their behaviour shares a consistent set of characteristics referred to as the acronym FOUR Fixated, Obsessive, Unwanted, Repeated. publishing any statement or other material - i. relating or purporting to relate to a person, or ii. purporting to originate from a person. This crime disproportionately affects women and girls, but it is important to recognise that men and boys are victims too.

Stalking affects people of all ages, and victims come from a wide range of backgrounds — stalking is not restricted to public figures and celebrities. Stalking is often a characteristic of domestic abuse, particularly once a relationship has ended.

It is important to note that men and children can also be victims, and women can be perpetrators of stalking. However, these behaviours may amount to stalking depending on:. Read the guidance on stalking on GOV. Forced marriage involves the use of violence, threats or any other form of coercion against a person with the intention or belief that the conduct may cause a person to enter into a marriage without consent. In the case of a person lacking capacity to consent to the marriage, a marriage can be a forced marriage as a result of any conduct that causes a person to enter a marriage notwithstanding that there is no conduct that amounts to the use of violence, threats or any other form of coercion.

It is recognised in the UK as a form of domestic abuse - if carried out by someone with a personal connection to the victim - or child abuse, and a serious abuse of human rights. Forced marriage is a criminal offence under section of the Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act A person who is at risk of or who has undergone forced marriage, a local authority, and any other party with the permission of the court, can apply to the Family Court for a Forced Marriage Protection Order FMPO to be issued, in order to protect that person.

Guidance on forced marriage can be found on GOV. In addition, section 63A of the Family Law Act makes provision for a court to make a FMPO to prevent a person from being forced into a marriage or from any attempt to be forced into a marriage.

Those being forced into marriage who are under the age of 18 are also victims of forced marriage. This guidance is referenced Keeping Children Safe in Education FGM is a form of violence against women and girls which is both a cause and consequence of gender inequality. However, it is also carried out on women for a variety of reasons such as giving a woman social acceptance before marriage or ensuring her chastity.

Whilst FGM may be an isolated incident of abuse within a family, it can be associated with other behaviours that discriminate against and which limit or harm women and girls. FGM is a criminal offence under section 1 of the Female Genital Mutilation Act the Act.

Failing to protect a girl from FGM is also criminal offence under section 3A of the Act. Further information can be found in the statutory guidance on female genital mutilation.

Modern slavery takes many different forms, both within and outside personal relationships and can encompass human trafficking and slavery, servitude and forced or compulsory labour. Where there is evidence of this type of exploitation, the Modern Slavery Act provides the appropriate means to prosecute offenders.

In some cases, where there is a personal connection, the offence of controlling or coercive behaviour under the Domestic Abuse Act may also apply. Children can be victims of modern slavery, or at risk of being a victim.

Whatever form it takes, modern slavery is abuse. Child victims may be identified in a range of contexts. The characteristics and issues for child victims of modern slavery may be different to adult victims, including their added vulnerability; developmental stage; and possible grooming by the perpetrator. Potential child and adult victims of modern slavery will often not disclose on the first presentation but may after a relationship of trust is developed.

Relevant child protection procedures in line with the guidance set out in Working Together to Safeguard Children must be followed if modern slavery is suspected. Statutory guidance on how to identify and support victims of modern slavery includes indicators of modern slavery in Chapter 3 and indicators specific to child victims in Annex A. Victims of modern slavery can receive appropriate support through the National Referral Mechanism NRM. An online referral system is used for referrals into the NRM and also referrals made under the Duty to Notify DtN which applies to specified public authorities.

Individuals who are recognised as potential victims of modern slavery through the NRM can have access to specialist tailored support for a period of at least 45 days while their case is considered, this may include: access to relevant legal advice, accommodation, protection and independent emotional and practical help.

There are many reasons why an individual may become a perpetrator of domestic abuse and these can include: a desire to exert power and control over someone; misogyny; low self-esteem; or learned and replicated behaviour as a result of experience of abuse in their childhood although the majority of children who experience abuse in their childhoods do not go on to become perpetrators.

Evidence also shows that more than a third of the service users of one perpetrator programme [footnote 78] had employment, training or educational needs, just over a quarter had mental health needs, around a quarter misused alcohol, and just under a quarter had housing needs, with some service users having needs across multiple categories. Some perpetrators do not recognise that their behaviour constitutes domestic abuse, however all perpetrators are responsible for their behaviour and should be held accountable for it.

An abuser may manipulate their victim or those around them to make their abuse invisible, even to their victims. Domestic abuse perpetrators can be particularly adept at manipulating professionals, agencies and systems and may use a range of tactics in order to perpetuate contact with and control over the victim.

These can include:. Factors such as alcohol and drugs misuse can increase the likelihood and severity of domestic abuse.

Substances can act as a disinhibitor, rather than a cause of violence and abuse. It is important that any alcohol or drugs treatment programme for perpetrators, as well as addressing the causes of the substance abuse, also addresses the complex dynamics and power and control which underpin domestic abuse.

Domestic abuse can have a long-lasting effect on adult and child victims. The impact of trauma may, similarly, be overlooked in children and young people. Similarly, prior experiences of physical or psychological trauma, as a result of bullying, discrimination and hate crime, may make victims of domestic abuse less likely to seek help.

This may provide a barrier to victims seeking or accepting help. See further resources for practitioners working with families affected by domestic abuse. Some victims may also use drugs or alcohol to help cope with abuse. For some, substance abuse may progress to addiction. Perpetrators can also exploit and sustain addictions to keep a victim controlled and dependent on them, as well as manipulate the threat of exposing this to professionals given the possible subsequent impacts should the victim have children.

Research [footnote 88] has shown that first responders can find it difficult to correctly identify perpetrators of abuse due to a tendency to see the perpetrator as the individual who is abusing alcohol or drugs. Alcohol use by women in particular has in other studies [footnote 89] been found to be a response to experience of abuse from partners, whilst alcohol is also used by male victims as a coping mechanism.

For more information on alcohol and substance misuse, please see paragraph Many victims can also be made homeless by domestic abuse. Annual statutory homelessness statistics for show that 1 in 11 households 8. The majority of women who experience homelessness have been abused.

The risk of homelessness can also prevent a victim from leaving a home shared with a perpetrator, and a victim may remain in an abusive situation in order to avoid homelessness for them and their children. Victims may also suffer from the effects of economic abuse; these effects can be unemployment, diminished employment prospects, or poverty. This underlines the need for an understanding of intersectionality by professionals in order to ensure the needs of victims are understood and an appropriate response provided see Chapter 2 — Understanding domestic abuse.

Domestic abuse has a significant impact on children and young people of all ages years old. Children and young people are deemed to be victims under the Act as a result of seeing, hearing or otherwise experiencing domestic abuse between two people where the child is related to at least one of them whether that be the victim or perpetrator section 3.

A child might therefore be considered to be a victim of domestic abuse under the Act where one parent was abusing another parent, or where a parent was abusing, or being abused by, a partner. The Act does not create a new offence of domestic abuse, and frontline responders should continue to consider the full range of existing legislation and safeguards to protect children.

Legislation to be considered could include common assault, assault occasioning actual bodily harm, causing or allowing death or serious harm, or child cruelty, neglect and violence. This last offence, under section 1 of the Children and Young Person Act was amended in , to include causing a child emotional or psychological suffering, including through exposure to domestic abuse.

Data on the prevalence of children and young people experiencing domestic abuse involving a relative is limited due to domestic abuse often being a hidden crime. For example, data shows that domestic abuse is the most common factor in social worker assessments of children in need. Research highlights the effects of non-physical forms of domestic abuse on children [footnote 98] and that coercive control without physical violence has similarly harmful effects on children - professionals focused on physical acts of violence may fail to understand the daily lived experience of victims and children, how it is affecting them, and the level of risk posed by perpetrators.

We know that experiencing domestic abuse involving a relative can have devastating consequences for children. Domestic abuse can impact children in a range of different ways, and there are a range of factors that may determine the nature of their experience, including age, gender, disability, race and socio-economic context.

Experience of domestic abuse is also recognised as an Adverse Childhood Experience ACE. Other ACEs include maltreatment such as physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, or household dysfunction such as having incarcerated relatives or relatives experiencing substance abuse or mental illness.

Research suggests that ACEs can often overlap, occurring in clusters. Each child should be seen as an individual and assessed as such so that a bespoke support plan can be developed.

Broadly, some of the effects can include: [footnote ]. increased application to activities outside the home, including academia or sports, as a distraction. Children who are cared for by family members other than their parents and looked after children may also have additional needs that professionals should consider. Children and young people of difference ages may respond in different ways to domestic abuse, depending on their stage of development.

Babies experiencing domestic abuse may be more likely to have difficulty sleeping, have higher levels of excess crying and disrupted attachment.

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The guidance therefore is aimed at statutory and non-statutory bodies working with victims, perpetrators and commissioning services, including the police, local authorities, and the NHS to increase awareness and inform their response to domestic abuse. It is also aimed at support organisations working with victims. Chapter 1 provides the objectives of the guidance and chapter 2 sets out background on domestic abuse and our understanding of it as seen in data and evidence.

Chapter 2 details the statutory definition and expands on this through setting out some of the key forms of abuse in different relationship contexts and a range of abusive behaviours, in order to assist in recognising abuse. It also explores intersectionality and related considerations — that individuals can be victims of multiple and different abusive behaviours because of the way different personal or situational characteristics overlap, including effects on their access to services and support if services are not designed to meet their needs.

Chapter 3 describes the impact of domestic abuse on victims, highlighting common themes and experiences. It looks in detail at the impact on children, who are for the first time recognised as victims of domestic abuse in their own right, intending to highlight different aspects of the experience of young people, or factors which affect this, so that this can be considered in seeking to meet their needs. It explains how the statutory definition of domestic abuse is to operate alongside other measures that address the safeguarding of children and for all victims it promotes consideration of intersectionality in assessing impact.

Chapter 4 outlines the role of individual agencies in responding to domestic abuse. It sets out the context of existing guidance and strategies and the tools available to organisations. Chapter 5 sets out the responsibility for agencies to work together and share information and discusses in detail best practice principles for multi-agency working. Chapter 6 discusses standards for agencies commissioning responses, including the public sector equality duty and the national statement of expectations.

It details the duty on local authorities, under part 4 of the Act, to provide support to victims and their children in refuges and other safe accommodation. It also references standards and expectations for perpetrator programmes and behaviour change interventions. The guidance is supplemented with case studies to help illustrate some of the subject matter described and annexes are included to signpost a wide array of support available for victims Annex A , define the acronyms used within the guidance Annex B and highlight the diverse guidance available to support frontline professionals Annex C.

This guidance extends to England and relates to reserved or non-devolved matters to Wales. In relation to Wales, the guidance is aimed at those agencies discharging functions which are reserved to the UK government policing, and criminal, civil and family justice , although not all criminal offences are reserved, such as the offence of controlling or coercive behaviour which is devolved to Wales.

Devolved bodies and local organisations in Wales should also refer to the relevant Welsh legislation, in relation to devolved matters, such as the Violence Against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence Wales Act and associated guidance, which is referenced throughout this document. Devolved bodies in Wales may need to have regard to this guidance in relation to reserved matters. We would expect both devolved and non-devolved organisations to continue to work together to implement the purposes of the act, where relevant and appropriate.

The information within this guidance is relevant to organisations and agencies in England and Wales working with victims including children or perpetrators of domestic abuse, and to those dealing with the other consequences of domestic abuse, such as financial institutions.

Some of these organisations may have statutory duties to safeguard victims of domestic abuse. Section 84 4 of the Act provides that a person exercising public functions to whom this guidance is issued must have regard to it in the exercise of those functions.

The government will be publishing a refreshed Violence Against Women and Girls VAWG strategy followed by a domestic abuse strategy. Domestic abuse, a form of violence against women and girls, is a high-volume and high-harm crime. In the year ending March , an estimated 2. In producing these strategies, we intend to shine twice as much light on the issue of violence against women and girls and the strategies will work together to prevent and reduce VAWG crimes.

The government will update this guidance following publication of both the strategies. The prevention of abuse and the protection of all victims lies at the heart of the Domestic Abuse Act and the wider programme of work. One of the central functions of this guidance is to provide clear information on what domestic abuse is and how to identify it, including the behaviours that amount to domestic abuse, the impact of domestic abuse on adult and child victims, as well as the links to other forms of abuse.

Individuals may not be aware that they are a victim of domestic abuse, they might blame themselves for the abuse, fear the consequences of leaving the abuser, not know where they can seek help, or fear that they will experience stigma and shame if they do try to seek help. We acknowledge that there is a significant amount of work underway to improve the response of frontline staff to domestic abuse, whether that is police forces, housing officers, across the National Health Service or in job centres.

Of course, there is always room and scope for improvement in the response. The second function of this publication is to provide guidance and support to frontline professionals who have responsibilities to safeguard and support victims of domestic abuse. The document also outlines the strategic and operational frameworks that produce the most effective commissioning of domestic abuse services.

Another function of the guidance is to support and signpost frontline professionals who have responsibilities to safeguard and support victims of domestic abuse. It is important that public authorities are able to identify victims and know how to provide the right response, and this guidance is dedicated to improving the agency response to domestic abuse, and details best practice, specific considerations and guidance. Early intervention by the voluntary sector and statutory agencies working together can help to protect adults and children from further harm, as well as preventing escalation and recurrence of a range of abuses which can form part of domestic abuse, such as stalking, harassment, and sexual violence.

Domestic abuse is a unique crime type. Whilst it is common, it is often hidden and therefore difficult to quantify. However, the Crime Survey for England and Wales CSEW estimated that 2. The police recorded a total of 1,, domestic abuse-related incidents and crimes in England and Wales excluding Greater Manchester Police [footnote 3] in the year ending March This follows a broader pattern of increases in police recorded domestic abuse and may reflect general improvements in crime recording by the police.

This suggests that more victims are coming forward to report domestic abuse, and that there is greater police awareness of this crime. Domestic abuse can affect anyone, regardless of age, disability, gender identity, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex or sexual orientation. Domestic abuse can also manifest itself in specific ways within different communities.

Women are disproportionately the victims of domestic abuse. Domestic abuse perpetrated on men by women and on victims in LGBT relationships is often due to the need of the perpetrator to exert power and control over their victim.

The CSEW for the year ending March estimated that 1. Women are more likely to experience repeat victimisation, be physically injured or killed as a result of domestic abuse and experience non-physical abuse - including emotional and financial abuse - than men [footnote 5].

According to the CSEW for the year ending March , around one in four women aged 16 to 74 According to the CSEW for the year ending March around one in seven men aged 16 to 74 The biggest component of the estimated cost is the physical and emotional harms incurred by victims £47 billion , particularly the emotional harms the fear, anxiety and depression experienced by victims as a result of domestic abuse , which account for the overwhelming majority of the overall costs.

The cost to the economy is also considerable, with an estimated £14 billion arising from lost output due to time off work and reduced productivity as a consequence of domestic abuse.

There are also additional barriers to services experienced by victims from protected groups and those experiencing multiple disadvantages. Black, Asian and ethnic minority women, women with insecure immigration status, deaf and disabled women and LGBT victims will experience further barriers when accessing services.

Similarly, the co-occurrence of homelessness, drug and alcohol use, criminal justice system involvement and mental health will often mean that victims will face huge challenges when seeking support.

Section 1 of the Act creates a statutory definition of domestic abuse see box below which sets out the definition of domestic abuse, which is found in sections 1 to 3, or part 1 of the Act. This includes children who have seen, heard, or experienced domestic abuse and are related to either the adult victim or the perpetrator section 3.

Section 1 3 of the Act provides for what constitutes behaviour that is abusive. This behaviour might consist of a single incident or a course of conduct. This will include a person aged 16 or and it does not matter whether the behaviour consists of a single incident or a course of conduct.

d they have entered into a civil partnership agreement whether or not the agreement has been terminated. f they each have, or there has been a time when they each have had, a parental relationship in relation to the same child see subsection 2.

Professionals and agencies must be aware that the types of abuse can differ in nature, dynamics, and impact, therefore to ensure they can deliver an effective response, there must be an explanation of the types and forms of abuse.

It has long been accepted that domestic abuse most commonly takes place in intimate partner relationships, including same-sex relationships [footnote 8]. Such abuse in intimate relationships can vary in severity and frequency, ranging from a one-off occurrence to a continued pattern of behaviour. Further detail on the types of abusive behaviour can be found at paragraph 45 onwards. Abuse often continues or intensifies when a relationship has ended, which can be a very dangerous time for a victim.

Post-separation abuse, including stalking, harassment and forms of physical, emotional, sexual and economic abuse, and controlling and coercive behaviour often continues and causes ongoing harm. In the year ending March 61 women and 9 men were recorded as being victims of homicide by a current or ex-partner [footnote 10]. Relationship abuse happens at all ages, not just in adult relationships. Young people can experience domestic abuse in their relationships, regardless of whether they are living together.

The latest figures from the CSEW show that women aged 16 to 19 years were more likely to be victims of any domestic abuse in the last year than women aged 25 years or over [footnote 12].

Similarly, men aged between 16 to 19 were most likely to experience domestic abuse than at any other age. It should be noted that if a young person is under 16 years old, the definition of domestic abuse under the Act will not apply to them, instead this abuse would be considered as child abuse.

Victims under 16 would be treated as victims of child abuse and age appropriate consequences will be considered for perpetrators under Abuse may also arise out of casual relationships. Some perpetrators may deny abuse by stating that they were not in a relationship with the victim.

Some victims may not self-identify as victims due to the casual nature of their relationship. Some perpetrators may have multiple romantic and sexual partners via dating apps and demonstrate abusive behaviour even though the perception is not one of being in an intimate personal relationship with the victim. Teenage relationship abuse is not a term that is defined by the Act, or elsewhere in law, but if the victim and perpetrator are at least 16 years old abuse in their relationship will come under the statutory definition of domestic abuse set out in the Domestic Abuse Act.

The act does not create a specific offence of domestic abuse and whilst young people under the age of 16 can experience behaviours which encompass domestic abuse, these would be considered child abuse.

These can include a wide range of incidents or patterns of incidents of controlling or coercive behaviour, violence or abuse between teenagers and may involve children younger than 13 who are, or have been, in an intimate relationship. This abuse can encompass, but is not limited to, psychological, physical, sexual, economic or emotional abuse.

For teenagers in particular, this abuse can often occur through technology. For instance, technology may be used to harass and control victims, including social media, or location-based tracking apps such as Find My Friends.

Young people may also experience intimate image abuse within their relationships, including threats to expose intimate images. Teenage relationship abuse often occurs outside of a domestic setting, and victims may feel that domestic abuse occurs only between adults who are cohabiting or married.

Teenage victims may also find it difficult to view their abuse as abuse — for instance, controlling or jealous behaviour may be interpreted as love. Practitioners should consider this when dealing with incidents of teenage relationship abuse. Domestic abuse in teenage relationships is just as severe and has the potential to be as life threatening as abuse in adult relationships.

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WebExecutive summary. This guidance is issued under section 84 of the Domestic Abuse Act (‘the Act’) and has been formulated to set standards and promote best practice WebPassword requirements: 6 to 30 characters long; ASCII characters only (characters found on a standard US keyboard); must contain at least 4 different symbols; Web12/10/ · Microsoft pleaded for its deal on the day of the Phase 2 decision last month, but now the gloves are well and truly off. Microsoft describes the CMA’s concerns as “misplaced” and says that Web - The diagonal (approximate, to four decimal places) of a 1 x 1 square, also known as Pythagoras's Constant, and therefore also the ratio () for calculating the diagonal side of a right-angled triangle in which the two short sides are of equal length. - The Golden Number (to four decimal places). Also known as the Golden Section, Divine WebWindows needs a special driver in order to have OpenOCD communicate with the picoprobe firmware. Most flavors of Linux and macOS come with the driver installed by default. Download and run Zadig. Select Options > List All Devices. Select Picoprobe (Interface 2) from the drop-down menu. The driver will likely be listed as (NONE) Webdata:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAKAAAAB4CAYAAAB1ovlvAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAArNJREFUeF7t1zFqKlEAhtEbTe8CXJO1YBFtXEd2lE24G+1FBZmH6VIkxSv8QM5UFgM ... read more

For many victims, ending the relationship is not possible as they feel that the risks are so great. Bear Raid - The practice, in the stock market, of attempting to push the price of a stock lower by selling in large numbers and often spreading unfavourable rumours about the company concerned. They may also seek to manipulate the relationship between the child and the non-abusive parent. Employment Law - Also known as Labour Law. ROBSON LUSTOSA.

Actuals - Real costs, sales, binary option most accurate indicators formers. It is possible that victims may also be reluctant to report abuse due to the fear of information sharing by the police and other statutory services with the Home Office for the purpose of immigration control. A B2B provider is therefore a provider of business services or products, for example: company auditors, manufacturers of industrial machinery, conference organizers, corporate hospitality, advertising agencies, trade journals, wholesalers, warehousing and logistics, management consultancies, mining, farming, industrial chemicals, papermills, etc. Conservator - In law, a guardian or protector appointed by a court to manage the affairs, finances, binary option most accurate indicators formers, etc. Domestic abuse can have a long-lasting effect on adult and child victims. purporting to originate from a person.